ArticleSchenk, H. JochenPremise of the Study Xylem sap in angiosperms moves under negative pressure in conduits and cell wall pores that are nanometers to micrometers in diameter, so sap is always very close to surfaces. Surfaces matter for water transport because hydrophob . . .
ArticleSchenk, H. JochenVascular plants transport water under negative pressure without constantly creating gas bubbles that would disable their hydraulic systems. Attempts to replicate this feat in artificial systems almost invariably result in bubble formation, except unde . . .