AC signal characterization for optimization of a CMOS single-electron pump

Pumping single electrons at a set rate is being widely pursued as an electrical current standard. Semiconductor charge pumps have been pursued in a variety of modes, including single gate ratchet, a variety of 2-gate ratchet pumps, and 2-gate turnstiles. Whether pumping with one or two AC signals, lower error rates can result from better knowledge of the properties of the AC signal at the device. In this work, we operated a CMOS single-electron pump with a 2-gate ratchet style measurement and used the results to characterize and optimize our two AC signals. Fitting this data at various frequencies revealed both a difference in signal path length and attenuation between our two AC lines. Using this data, we corrected for the difference in signal path length and attenuation by applying an offset in both the phase and the amplitude at the signal generator. Operating the device as a turnstile while using the optimized parameters determined from the 2-gate ratchet measurement led to much flatter, more robust charge pumping plateaus. This method was useful in tuning our device up for optimal charge pumping, and may prove useful to the semiconductor quantum dot community to determine signal attenuation and path differences at the device.