Erratum: Bacteria as tumour-targeting vectors

Live bacteria were first actively used in the treatment of cancer nearly 150 years ago, work that ultimately led to the study of immunomodulation. Today, with the discovery of bacterial strains that specifically target tumours, and aided by genomic sequencing and genetic engineering, there is new interest in the use of bacteria as tumour vectors. Bifodobacterium, Clostridium, and Salmonella have all been shown to preferentially replicate within solid tumours when injected from a distal site, and all three types of bacteria have been used to transport and amplify genes encoding factors such as prodrug-converting enzymes, toxins, angiogenesis inhibitors, and cytokines. In this review we provide a historical discussion of this area, and describe the development of the bacteria, which are currently being prepared for use in clinical trials in patients with cancer.