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Introduction: pluralistic and multicultural reexaminations of tolerance/toleration

This special issue of JET will discuss “Pluralism, Multiculturalism, and Tolerance/Toleration.” The highest social idea is “universal love,” however the bottom line of a realistic society is “tolerance/toleration.” “Tolerance/toleration” can be defined as a sense of openness to difference and diversity, namely, a just, inclusive, pluralistic, and objective attitude of mind or way of thinking toward different genders, races, religions, and nationalities as well as different values, rights, interests, spiritualities, and socio-political ideas. But what are the more detailed distinctions between tolerance and toleration? V. Bader answers: “Tolerance/toleration, first, can refer to (a) an articulated normative principle; (b) an individual attitude, disposition or a personal virtue; and (c) to collective practices and institutional regimes. When I mean an articulated normative principle, I call it tolerance; when I refer to attitudes, virtues, practices and institutional regimes I use the term toleration.” (Bader 2011, 18)

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