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One-dimensional large-U Hubbard model: an analytical approach
The basic properties of the Hubbard chain are systematically studied in the large-U regime by a path-integral formalism. The bare electron (hole) is shown to be a composite particle of two basic excitations, holon and spinon, together with the nonlocal string fields. Both holon and spinon are described by fermions with gapless spectra. Based on these quasiparticles, various correlation functions are analytically derived.