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Transformative modes of Chinese cosmopolitanism: a historical comparison
Chinese traditional thinkers attempt to examine cosmopolitanism through metaphysical, ethical, aesthetical, and utopian imagination. They transform the examination of cosmopolitanism from the geographical to ethical-political. The conceptualization of Chinese cosmopolitanism has had four dimensions: 1) the concept of the supernatural being and superhuman being through certain ontological and cosmological imagination; 2) the concept of the natural being through the geographical environment; 3) the concept of the human being through the centralized ruler ship to govern the entire society and all lands; and 4) the concept of the moral virtue，ethical value and utopian idea through self realization, self perfection, self purification and self transformation. This article will justify seven transformative modes of Chinese cosmopolitanism through a philosophical comparison.
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