Tonic Accommodation Predicts Closed-Loop Accommodation Responses

The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between tonic accommodation (TA), near work induced TA-adaptation and the steady state closed-loop accommodation response (AR). Forty-two graduate students participated in the study. Various aspects of their accommodation system were objectively measured using an open-field infrared auto-refractor (Grand Seiko WAM-5500). Tonic accommodation was assessed in a completely dark environment. The association between TA and closed-loop AR was assessed using linear regression correlations and t-test comparisons. Initial mean baseline TA was 1.84 diopter (D) (SD ± 1.29 D) with a wide distribution range (−0.43 D to 5.14 D). For monocular visual tasks, baseline TA was significantly correlated with the closed-loop AR. The slope of the best fit line indicated that closed-loop AR varied by approximately 0.3 D for every 1 D change in TA. This ratio was consistent across a variety of viewing distances and different near work tasks, including both static targets and continuous reading. Binocular reading conditions weakened the correlation between baseline TA and AR, although results remained statistically significant. The 10 min near reading task with a 3 D demand did not reveal significant near work induced TA-adaptation for either monocular or binocular conditions. Consistently, the TA-adaptation did not show any correlation with AR during reading. This study found a strong association between open-loop TA and closed-loop AR across a variety of viewing distances and different near work tasks. Difference between the correlations under monocular and binocular reading condition suggests a potential role for vergence compensation during binocular closed-loop AR.