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What determines the penumbral size and Evershed flow speed?

Using Hinode SP and G-band observations, we examined the relationship between magnetic field structure and penumbral length as well as Evershed flow speed. The latter two are positively correlated with magnetic inclination angle or horizontal field strength within 1.5 kilogauss, which is in agreement with recent magnetoconvective simulations of Evershed effect. This work thus provides direct observational evidence supporting the magnetoconvection nature of penumbral structure and Evershed flow in the presence of strong and inclined magnetic field.

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