Article

Obtaining topological degenerate ground states by the density matrix renormalization group

We develop the density matrix renormalization group approach to systematically identify the topological order of the quantum spin liquid (QSL) through adiabatically obtaining different topological degenerate sectors of the QSL on an infinite cylinder. As an application, we study the anisotropic kagome Heisenberg model known for hosting a Z2 QSL, however no numerical simulations have been able to access all four sectors before. We obtain the complete set of four topological degenerate ground states distinguished by the presence or absence of the spinon and vison quasiparticle line, which fully characterizes the topological nature of the quantum phase. We have also studied the kagome Heisenberg model, which has recently attracted a lot of attention. We find two topological sectors accurately and also estimate various properties of the other topological sectors, where the larger correlation length is found indicating the possible proximity to another phase.

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