Temporal Variation in Adult Affiliation Patterns in Wild Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis)

We studied temporal variation in affiliative behavior among adults in 2 multi-male groups of wild Taiwanese macaques from 2 different populations: one in Southern Taiwan, and one in Northern Taiwan. Although the study areas differed dramatically in their elevation, average temperatures, and rainfall patterns, both populations displayed marked similarities. Analyses of grooming and proximity showed that only male-female affiliative patterns had significant temporal variation. The males and females of both populations had the highest frequencies of grooming and proximity in a mating context. Outside of the mating season, male-female affiliation rates dropped dramatically. In contrast, female-female and male-male affiliation patterns showed no significant temporal variation.