Article

An In-depth Analysis of Achievement Gaps Between Seventh and Eighth Grades in the TIMSS Database

Middle school data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) are analyzed in this article to compare achievement difference between seventh and eighth grades. The statistical computing involves a selective subtraction of item scores in more than 40 countries. The research findings indicate that not all TIMSS items have resulted in a higher mean score at the upper grade level. Item features are discussed to characterize part of the released TIMSS instrument that generates a higher average score at the lower grade. This empirical study may help enrich understanding of the TIMSS benchmark among mathematics and science educators.

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