Self-catalyzed epitaxial growth of vertical indium phosphide nanowires on silicon

Vertical indium phosphide nanowires have been grown epitaxially on silicon (111) by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Liquid indium droplets were formed in situ and used to catalyze deposition. For growth at 350 °C, about 70% of the wires were vertical, while the remaining ones were distributed in the 3 other <111> directions. The vertical fraction, growth rate, and tapering of the wires increased with temperature and V/III ratio. At 370 °C and V/III equal to 200, 100% of the wires were vertical with a density of ∼1.0 × 109 cm−2 and average dimensions of 3.9 μm in length, 45 nm in base width, and 15 nm in tip width. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the wires were single-crystal zinc blende, although they contained a high density of rotational twins perpendicular to the <111> growth direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectrum exhibited one peak centered at 912 ± 10 nm with a FWHM of ~60 nm.