Orbital migration of low-mass planets in evolutionary radiative models: avoiding catastrophic infall

Outward migration of low-mass planets has recently been shown to be a possibility in non-barotropic disks. We examine the consequences of this result in evolutionary models of protoplanetary disks. Planet migration occurs toward equilibrium radii with zero torque. These radii themselves migrate inwards because of viscous accretion and photoevaporation. We show that as the surface density and temperature fall the planet orbital migration and disk depletion timescales eventually become comparable, with the precise timing depending on the mass of the planet. When this occurs, the planet decouples from the equilibrium radius. At this time, however, the gas surface density is already too low to drive substantial further migration. A higher mass planet, of 10Mo, can open a gap during the late evolution of the disk, and stops migrating. Low-mass planets, with 1 or 0.1Mo, released beyond 1 AU in our models avoid migrating into the star. Our results provide support for the reduced migration rates adopted in recent planet population synthesis models.