Sphingosine-1-phosphate may protect against the brain endothelial cell damage observed in Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of age-related dementia. There is currently no cure or effective treatment for AD. Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is a hallmark of AD. Aβ peptides may be involved in the death of various brain cells, including endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized structure that acts as an interface between the circulation and neural environment and regulates brain permeability of substances. Injury to the brain endothelium by Aβ peptides may contribute to dysfunction of the BBB seen in AD. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a vital lipid signaling molecule that assists in proper brain functionality. S1P may be involved in cell protection against Aβ peptides.