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A comparison of selected standardized achievement tests in a multilingual community: questions of linguistic bias.
The use of standardized achievement tests flourishes in the American educational landscape. First developed in the United States by Joseph Mayer Rice in the 1880's, the standardized test has one primary function, to compare the efforts of an examinee, or a group of examinees, with those of a larger group of examinees that is considered typical. Rice's own work came about when he tried to compare student abilities to spell and found that spelling tests and instruction lacked uniformity within schools and grades, even in the same district.