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Simulation studies of non-toxic tin and bismuth based halide perovskite photovoltaics: Critical insights into solar performance kinetics through comparison with standard lead-based devices
The operation and functionality of working Sn and Bi based perovskite solar cell devices have been simulated using the Generalized Photovoltaic Device Model and compared against different Pb-based devices. The results are highly promising in that they show comparable cell efficiencies, with a traditional Sn-based device showing a highest 21.3% efficiency (Jsc of 332.8 A/m2, Voc of 0.839 V, FF of 0.764) compared to 23.4% of its Pb counterpart (Jsc of 349.3 A/m2, Voc of 0.811 V, FF of 0.828), at similar active layer thicknesses. The authors have also simulated a working Sn perovskite/Cu2O hole transport layer (HTL)/Cu back-contact device versus a standard Pb perovskite/Spiro HTL/Ag back-contact device, showing a highest 22.9% efficiency [Jsc of 353.4 A/m2, Voc of 0.84 V, fill factor (FF) of 0.77] at 427 nm active layer thickness compared with 24.6% of the standard Pb perovskite/Spiro HTL/Ag back-contact device (Jsc of 356.8 A/m2, Voc of 0.82 V, FF of 0.84). Lastly, the authors have simulated a Bi-based device showing a highest 20.0% efficiency (Jsc of 256 A/m-2, Voc of 1.04 V, FF of 0.75) at 450 nm active layer thickness compared to 23.4% of its Pb counterpart (Jsc of 349.3 A/m-2, Voc of 0.81 V, FF of 0.83) at 850 nm active layer thickness.