Thesis

Bullying, time perspective, and psychological outcomes among adolescents

This study aimed to replicate and extend research on adolescent bullying and victimization by determining gender differences, associations among bullying, anxiety, and self-esteem, as well as relationships between bullying and time perspectives. Selfreport surveys were collected from 406 adolescents from a public high school. Findings indicated several major results. First, males reported significantly more bullying, victimization, and bully-victimization compared to females. Relationships between bullying, psychological outcomes, and time perspective also differed by gender. For females, victimization and bully-victimization was positively related to anxiety, whereas males had a positive relationship with anxiety for all bully statuses. For females, the intensity of all bully statuses was negatively associated with self-esteem. For males, only victimization and bully-victimization were negatively correlated with self-esteem. Regarding time perspective, female victimization, bullying, and bully-victim status were related to time attitudes in theoretically expected directions, but less associations were shown across time attitudes for males. Future frequency was negatively related to bullying and bully-victimization for females, but not for any status for males. However, for males, bullying was associated with time orientation, where more victimization, bullying, and bully-victimization were reported by participants with an orientation toward the past. In contrast, bullying was associated with time relation for females. Specifically, bullying and bully-victimization was associated with the perspective that time periods were unrelated. Implications and future directions are discussed.

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