Bullying, time perspective, and psychological outcomes among adolescents
This study aimed to replicate and extend research on adolescent bullying and victimization by determining gender differences, associations among bullying, anxiety, and self-esteem, as well as relationships between bullying and time perspectives. Selfreport surveys were collected from 406 adolescents from a public high school. Findings indicated several major results. First, males reported significantly more bullying, victimization, and bully-victimization compared to females. Relationships between bullying, psychological outcomes, and time perspective also differed by gender. For females, victimization and bully-victimization was positively related to anxiety, whereas males had a positive relationship with anxiety for all bully statuses. For females, the intensity of all bully statuses was negatively associated with self-esteem. For males, only victimization and bully-victimization were negatively correlated with self-esteem. Regarding time perspective, female victimization, bullying, and bully-victim status were related to time attitudes in theoretically expected directions, but less associations were shown across time attitudes for males. Future frequency was negatively related to bullying and bully-victimization for females, but not for any status for males. However, for males, bullying was associated with time orientation, where more victimization, bullying, and bully-victimization were reported by participants with an orientation toward the past. In contrast, bullying was associated with time relation for females. Specifically, bullying and bully-victimization was associated with the perspective that time periods were unrelated. Implications and future directions are discussed.