Biofouling Regulations : The Future of Global Marine Invasive Species Prevention
GMA 400L - Senior Seminar Research Lab
Nonindigenous species (NIS), also referred to as non-native or invasive species, are organisms that pose a threat to the environment to which they are introduced to. International commercial shipping vessels are considered a vector for these introductions, primarily through the vessels’ ballast water systems and through fouling, or attaching to the hull and releasing in a new location. Ballast water release is regulated by international law, while California and New Zealand are the only jurisdictions that have requirements Zealand are the only jurisdictions that have requirements for biofouling management. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) provides guidelines for biofouling management, but these are not required. CA and NZ regulations are both similar to these guidelines with the same best practices. Ballast water regulations are used as a case study to examine the future of biofouling management. The purpose of this project is to identify good elements of regulations, define best practices, and analyze the future of how the policy will spread.