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Observing response acquisition as a function of response similarity, distinctive floor covering, and cue salience.
Ehrenfreund (1948), in an early review of the continuity-noneontinuity controversy, concluded that learning will occur only when stimuli are placed so that they impinge on S's sensory receptors. This conclusion was based on his finding that presolution trials did not significantly retard reversal learning in the Lashley jumping stand unless the to-be-discriminated stimuli were placed in the area S fixated just prior to and during the jump. Subsequent to this analysis continuity, theorists have explicitly indicated the need for an account of the acquisition of receptor orienting acts (Kendler, Basden, & Bruckner, 1970; Logan, 1971; Spence, 1936, 1952). However, because direct measurement of natural orienting behaviors remains a substantial challenge in terms of instrumentation and technology, analogues of orienting have been studied in its place. Such analogues are termed observing responses.