Similar and contrasting factors affecting academic performance of newly arrived and second generation Filipino and Mexican high school English learners

This sequential explanatory mixed-methods design study researched (a) first and second generation participating target Filipino and Mexican English language learners’ (ELLs), daily behavioral engagement, with special emphasis on their oral and written English language use in daily academic settings that promote English language acquisition and literacy skills, (b) teacher quality equity, programmatic equity, and achievement equity, in regards to ELLs having equal access to academic and support services as their English-only counterparts, and (c) role of student-centered and school-centered factors in predicting the academic performance of first and second generation participating target Filipino and Mexican ELLs. The conceptual framework of the study drew from research related to (a) second language acquisition, and utilized the EL Shadowing and Observation Tool to gather data in regards to the first and second generation Filipino and Mexican ELLs’ academic classroom experience, (b) research of McKenzie & Skrla (2011) and Skrla, McKenzie & Scheurich (2009) on equity and social justice in schools, and (c) theoretical regression model for predicting the academic achievement of ELLs developed by Suárez-Orozco, Suárez-Orozco and Todorova (2008). Findings of this study revealed that participating ELLs (a) had minimal linguistic opportunities in daily academic settings, (b) had inequitable access to highly qualified experienced teachers and academic programs, and (c) their academic performance was being influenced by mixture of similar student-centered and school-centered factors.