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Anticipatory response in contingent negative variation during happy face Go task in persons with schizotypy and anhedonia
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between schizotypy, anhedonia, and CNV amplitude. Schizotypy is considered a subclinical manifestation of the same psychotic symptoms identifiable in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and lies on a continuum. Utilizing this population offers invaluable material for research in regards to the central features of schizophrenia as schizotypes are not exposed to the confounding elements of antipsychotic medications, chronic social deficits, cognitive decline, and frequent hospitalization as are individuals with schizophrenia. Studies of neurocognition of individuals with schizophrenia and schizotypy offer an understanding in various aspects of deficits, such as attention, working and spatial memory, emotion recognition and response inhibition. The current study examines anticipatory response in schizotypy and anhedonia population using electroencephalography (EEG) measure using a continuous performance task (CPT). "Psychometric schizotypes" were identified by their elevated scores on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief. Participants' brain wave activity were recorded during a CPT associated with emotion recognition. The contingent negative variation amplitudes were analyzed at the frontal, central and posterior leads for each task. Participants also responded to questions on the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) as a measure of the individual's ability to experience pleasure from physical stimuli such as food, sex and settings, and the Revised Social Anhedonia (RSAS) as a measure of the individual's experience of pleasure from social and interpersonal events. The CNV waveform, a putative measure of motivational state, showed the maximum negative magnitude in the early anticipatory (S1) CNV and the late imperative (S2) CNV in the central (CZ) region. The findings show a negative correlation between physical anhedonia and early CNV amplitude in the frontal (FZ) region. There were no significant finding in preparation to make a motor response in late CNV in high schizotypes and anhedonics.