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The grammitidaceae : anatomy of Adenophorus, Xiphopteris and Grammitis
The anatomy of six species of ferns belonging to the family Grammitidaceae was examined using standard paraffin and staining techniques. Adenophorus tamariscinus, Adenophorus haalilioanus and Adenophorus hymenophylloides are endemic Hawaiian species, related anatomically by the presence of glandular paraphyses, glandular rhizome epidermal hairs, concolorous scales, differentiated cortex and solenostelic, dorsiventral rhizomes. Xiphopteris serrulata and Xiphopteris trichomanoides from Jamaica, are characterized by the presence of hydathodes, concolorous scales, and erect, dissected solenostelic rhizomes. Grammitis marginella from Jamaica, noted for its sclerified blade margin, which was found to be superficial in origin was also found to have branched sclerified epidermal hairs, and a dictyostelic rhizome. Branches, which have not been described in the family were found in 5 species; branches are extra-axillary in A. tamariscinus, A. hymenophylloides, X. trichomanoides and G. marginella, and rare and random in stelar organization in X. serrulata. Root propagules known in A. haalilioanus are reported for the first time in X. serrulata. This study represents a significant increase in the number of Grammitid ferns examined for the anatomical characteristics that are important for the determination of phylogenetic trends and for solving of taxonomic problems within the family.