The effect of music on anxiety related to dyspnea in the patient with COPD. A systematic review.
Statement of Problem Patients with COPD experience frequent hospitalizations, and clinic visits for assistance with management of their chronic disease. Anxiety, however, is a problem commonly experienced by COPD patients that is not necessarily explained by the pathology of COPD. The occurrence of anxiety with COPD is of growing interest in the literature, due to the frequent observation of anxiety in patients who have COPD in the clinical setting. Dyspnea is a common subjective symptom also reported by these patients. Treatment is complex due to the nature of managing these two compounding conditions. The purpose of the systematic review as to evaluate the evidence of therapeutic music as a non-pharmacological intervention in managing anxiety related to dyspnea. Advanced practice nurses may be able to recommend therapeutic music as an adjunct to the pharmacological therapy among this population. Sources of Data Key search terms were selected in conducting a literature search in Google Scholar, Cochrane Systematic Review, PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINAHL databases. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions Reached Three of the five studies showed statistically significance of the therapeutic music on anxiety or dyspnea. The level of evidence was identified using the Johanna Briggs Level of Evidence (2014) and grading of recommendations. Four studies met level 1c as randomized crossover trials and the fifth study was a level 2c quasi-experimental study. For feasibility therapeutic music received a grade of A, appropriateness a grade of A, meaningfulness a grade of A and for effectiveness a grade of B. Longitudinal studies of music as an intervention with this population are needed to gain a better understanding of the long term effectiveness of the intervention. Nurse Practitioners can recommend therapeutic music as an intervention as an adjunct to medical therapies for patients with COPD.