Social Implications of Lightboard Technology toward Student Retention on Statistical Methods

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Lightboard technology on retention of statistical methods by university students. Lightboards (also known as "Learning Glass") are electronic glass "chalkboards" that allow the speaker to face the audience while writing visually stimulating images and equations using light within the glass and special neon markers. These lectures can be recorded and provide increased accessibility for the viewers by allowing them to pause, rewind, and include captioning in addition to providing additional social cues (e.g., hand gestures, body language) that have been shown to increase retention of complex materials (e.g., Son et al., 2018). A sample of 95 students from California State University, Northridge were recruited from the CSUN SONA system and randomized into one of three conditions (i.e., Lightboard video, voice-over video, and online text) and asked to answer a multi-step questionnaire on how to solve a statistical problem (e.g., standard deviation) both before and after receiving their instructional condition (4 questions per test). We utilized control measures (e.g., students' computer literacy, and number of math courses taken) and utilized correct responses, time of completion per test, and satisfaction ratings as study outcomes. A 2 (pre/post) by 3 (condition) mixed ANCOVA was conducted, controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., computer literacy and number math courses taken), resulting in a significant interaction between conditions of the pre-test and post-test, F(2, 82) = 3.700, p = 0. 029, partial η2 = 0.083, indicating that the improvement from pre- to post-test scores in the Lightboard condition were significantly greater than the voice-over-video condition but not the online text condition. Overall ratings of satisfaction between each group condition were not significant, F(8, 164) = 1.354, p = 0.23, partial η2 = 0.062. This study will help support the burgeoning research showing the educational benefits (e.g., increased retention, increased enjoyment) of Lightboard-based tutorials in applications like online learning, mixed format and "flipped" classrooms; especially for challenging topics (e.g., statistics).