Which Risk Factors Correspond to Physical Activity Levels Impacting Cardiovascular Disease? A Systematic Literature Review

Physical activity (PA) has been thoroughly investigated and associations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some risk factors (RF) are highly publicized. Although, associations with PA and RFs have been made that impact CVD risk, few studies, to knowledge, have completed comprehensive investigations of many RFs simultaneously. The aim of this study is to investigate trends in CVD risk by assessing relationship of modifiable and non-modifiable RFs to PA levels in U.S. adults. And, to present findings of the impacts and associations of differing PA levels to overall CVD risk. Results included six articles published between 2010 and 2018 that reported modifiable RFs. The number of articles that reported the modifiable risk factor smoking totaled five, alcohol totaled three, hypertension totaled three, BMI/weight totaled six, diet totaled three, and diabetes totaled three. For non-modifiable RFs education totaled five, socioeconomic status/income totaled two, race/ethnicity totaled three, sex totaled two, and age totaled five. Most RFs (non-modifiable and modifiable) correlated with PA level improving overall CVD risk, aside from alcohol, age, sex, race/ethnicity. Impacts and associations were synthesized analytically and expressed qualitatively. Keyword: Physical activity (PA), cardiovascular disease (CVD), risk factors (RFs), exercise (EX)