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Inhibitory effects of Piperaceae amides, acetaminophen, and NSAIDs on cyclooxygenase-2 activity via ELISA
Cyclooxygenase-2, also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2, is an enzyme linked to pain and inflammation. Although several types of prostaglandins can be synthesized via inducible cyclooxygenase-2, high levels of prostaglandin E2 are particularly associated with migraine symptoms. Inhibition of this enzyme can be achieved through pharmaceutical approaches such as NSAIDs and celecoxib, however, these means are not without deleterious side effects. Piper longum is an angiosperm containing several active constituents. Such compounds may function in cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibition, and therefore may be able to provide relief of migraine. Notable constituents of Piper longum include piperine, piperlongumine, and piperlonguminine. Minimal pharmacognostical studies exist on the topic of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition and compounds found in Piper longum. Human COX-2 inhibitor screening assay kits were utilized in order to determine whether piperine, piperlongumine, and piperlonguminine were natural inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin were also assayed. Only ibuprofen was able to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 at a concentration of 1000 μM during reaction.