Challenges to California’s Ports

The developments in the shipping industry have grown significantly in past decades. California's ports are responsible for over fifty percent of the nation’s container cargo volume. The ports must quickly advance to maintain their role in the global supply chain. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze multiple challenges facing California's ports and in conclusion, provide specific policy recommendations that would best address the challenges. The challenges analyzed include Intermodal issues, the Panama Canal expansion, regional ports/ trade wars, labor relations, and the cost of doing business in California.