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The Impact of Gender Identity: A Quantitative Analysis of Transgender Individuals' Self-reported Contact with the Criminal Justice System
Transgender individuals face discrimination in many aspects of life, including police contact as well as within correctional facilities. This study examines the selfreported contact of transgender individuals with the criminal justice system and how the contact varies by gender identity. Criminal justice system contact includes victimization and harassment by police, incarceration history, abuse and harassment while incarcerated, the denial of healthcare while incarcerated and various health related outcomes associated with incarceration. This study utilized data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the United States. Results show significant differences between the gender identity groups and their incarceration history, victimization and harassment by other inmates and correctional staff while incarcerated, the denial of medical care while incarcerated and the health outcomes of positive HIV status and sex work involvement. The femaleidentified population was the most likely gender identity group to report discrimination overall. This finding implies that the reported contact of transgender individuals with the criminal justice system are shaped and impacted by their gender identity and not all transgender individuals receive the same treatment by the criminal justice system.
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