Some factors in the design of instructional television courses for college students

This study was conducted to gather information on college students' learning as a function of three independent variables which involve the integration of programmed learning principles with instructional, television lessons. Factorially varied were the presence or absence of an instructional television lesson; programmed questions requiring either multiple choice or constructed responses; and response instructions, specifying written or "thought" responses, no special instructions, and, a level representing absence of a programmed question-answer sequence. The participating subjects, approximately 400 junior college students enrolled in an introductory TV psychology course, were assigned at random to all conditions. The data from both the immediate and delayed objective achievement tests indicate that students learn just as much from a programmed learning cycle regardless of whether they are given instructions to respond by thinking or are given no instructions. They learn more when given either of these two conditions than when given instructions to respond in writing, and performance in all three conditions is far superior than when the programmed sequence is omitted. An instructional television lesson adds significantly to the gain in learning produced by a programmed learning cycle. Students perform just as well on a multiple choice achievement test when they are exposed to linear programmed, multiple choice questions as when they are exposed to linear programmed, constructive response questions.