The convergence, emergence and transcendence of Jopara: a third language in bilingual Paraguay

The purpose of this thesis was to demonstrate there is a third language in bilingual Paraguay, despite disagreement among prominent scholars. Spanish and Guarani, the two most prominent languages of Paraguay, have traditionally been the languages spoken by two different segments of Paraguayan society: the urban and the rural. Spanish, the dominant language (socially, politically, and economically), the language ofthe father came into contact with Guarani, the subordinate, the language of the mother. The words of the dominant language were imposed on the syntax ofthe subordinate language. Jopara sounds like a ''bad" dominant language or an "impure" subordinate language. The result of this mixture of languages is a third linguistic identity, or a third language distinct from either of its parents. Keywords: Jopara, Guarani, mixed language, Paraguay, diglossia, high and low languages