Project

Experimenting conservation voltage reduction using PSCAD

Project (M.S., Electrical and Electronic Engineering)--California State University, Sacramento, 2017.

Cost optimization and loss reduction have always been the central attention points for utilities and power system operators. Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the methods, proven to reduce energy loss by reducing voltage at the main feeder transformer. 
 The CVR technique conserves energy without affecting the supply of electricity at end customer’s or causing damage to consumer’s appliances. The reduction in voltage at the beginning of the feeder should not cause voltage violations on the other parts of the feeder.
 The concept of CVR has been an important factor in the power distribution networks because of inefficiencies in the power grid, and the amount of energy wasted by the consumer. This project tests CVR methodology on a 24.9kV, IEEE 24 bus distribution system with a photovoltaic (PV) integration. The mentioned system is modeled and tested in PSCAD with solar and without solar. Final results show the level of conserved energy by reducing voltage at the feeder main transformer.
 Simulation results for the three load characteristics of a zip model load (Constant Impedance, Constant Current and Constant Power) in case of PV integration and without PV integration were studied. Active (P) and reactive (Q) powers for both cases were compared and analyzed. Figures 15 and 16 shows a graphical representation of how much energy saved with and without PV. It indicates that voltage was more stable without PV. Hence, the output results of both experiments indicates that more energy was conserved with decrease in voltage at the substation. The PV injected into the system is to increase the system reliability and efficiency and with PV, power is quite economical, and inexhaustible with safer energy to the customers.

Cost optimization and loss reduction have always been the central attention points for utilities and power system operators. Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the methods, proven to reduce energy loss by reducing voltage at the main feeder transformer. The CVR technique conserves energy without affecting the supply of electricity at end customer’s or causing damage to consumer’s appliances. The reduction in voltage at the beginning of the feeder should not cause voltage violations on the other parts of the feeder. The concept of CVR has been an important factor in the power distribution networks because of inefficiencies in the power grid, and the amount of energy wasted by the consumer. This project tests CVR methodology on a 24.9kV, IEEE 24 bus distribution system with a photovoltaic (PV) integration. The mentioned system is modeled and tested in PSCAD with solar and without solar. Final results show the level of conserved energy by reducing voltage at the feeder main transformer. Simulation results for the three load characteristics of a zip model load (Constant Impedance, Constant Current and Constant Power) in case of PV integration and without PV integration were studied. Active (P) and reactive (Q) powers for both cases were compared and analyzed. Figures 15 and 16 shows a graphical representation of how much energy saved with and without PV. It indicates that voltage was more stable without PV. Hence, the output results of both experiments indicates that more energy was conserved with decrease in voltage at the substation. The PV injected into the system is to increase the system reliability and efficiency and with PV, power is quite economical, and inexhaustible with safer energy to the customers.

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