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Prediction of success in reading and determination of differences in reading achievement between early readers and others
The purpose of this study was to review literature and research studies (1) related to prediction of success in reading achievement, and (2) related to differences in reading achievement between children who learned to read before they were six years of age and children who did not learn to read until they were six years of age or older. The findings of the present study indicated that success in beginning reading can be determined equally by readiness tests, intelligence tests, and teacher evaluations. Other factors which appear to affect the success in reading include: the instruction the child receives, his attitude toward his teacher and toward reading, his reaction to varying degrees of success and failure, and his home stability. The findings also indicated that there were no significant differences in reading achievement between early readers and children who learned to read at age six or later when such achievement is measured several years later. Although some children may learn to read before entering the first grade, this does not guarantee that they will maintain their reading superiority; that is, formalized instruction at an early age does not seem to provide a lasting advantage for ear1y readers over those who learn to read at age six or later.