Female athletes' perceptions of coach and parent feedback

Feedback is considered an essential function of skill learning and yet previous research often reports findings without controlling for learners background information, skill level, and perceptions of instruction. This study investigated child to adolescent female athletes’ perceptions of coach and parent feedback in response to good and poor soccer play, particularly in relation to skill level and age. Coaches assessed skill and athletes completed questionnaires measuring the perceived frequency of multiple types of feedback responses from coaches and parents including different forms of praise and criticism. 63 female club level soccer players, 10 to 17 years old and 4 head coaches participated in the study. Multivariate analysis revealed that coach’s praise and criticism was positively correlated to age and athlete initiated communication with coaches was negatively correlated to age. No correlations were found between athletic skill level and perceived feedback. These correlations indicate that age may affect how learners form their perceptions of instruction.