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Behavioral feedback process in therapy
The following is a review of the literature regarding the dynamic process of feedback in relation to three distinct schools of therapy. Due to the limitations set by a master's thesis and the complexity of the subject matter, it was necessary to limit this thesis to the following areas of concern: (a) a definition of feedback; (b) a description of the therapeutic feedback process and its associated elements (the initial interview, goal determination, subsequent interviews, and progress determination in relation to the uses of positive and negative therapeutic feedback); (c) a description of the dynamics of nonverbal feedback in therapy with a primary focus on Kinesic Behavior of the client, and verbal feedback in therapy with a primary focus in two areas-listening responses (reflection and clarification) and action responses (confrontation and interpretation) from the standpoint of therapist's feedback of the client's verbal responses. The final section of this thesis will analyze three major schools of therapy-Gestalt, Adlerian, and Person-Centered-in order to determine how these schools utilize the verbal and nonverbal feedback gained from the client during the initial interview and how they utilize positive and negative feedback. The reason for choosing these three schools is because they encompass three of the major theories in psychology. The Behaviorist school was omitted, even though the concept of feedback is implicit and explicit to the behaviorist model, because it is my contention that the therapeutic process of feedback transcends all psychological theories. In order to prove this, I will analyze three schools that do not explicitly utilize feedback.