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WISC--WISC-R :a comparative study.
Wechsler's (1949, 1974) conception of intelligence concerns the individual's ability to comprehend and function within his environment. In focusing in on this multi- determined and multifaceted entity, he selected subtests contributing to the effective intelligence of the individual. Nevertheless, arguments against the use of standardized intelligence tests with minority children are numerous (Palmer, 1970; Anastasi, 1967; Levine, 1966). These tests are said to have biases favoring white middle-class children. A review of research findings later in this paper does, in fact, consistently demonstrate that whites and middle-class subjects score higher on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), one of the most widely used IQ tests for school age children. Blacks and Mexican Americans, among others, may be handicapped by motivational deficiencies as well as insufficient test practice and reading ability.