Cooperative security in the context of terrorism and ethnic separatism: an analysis of Chinese security foreign policy in central Asia and Pakistan

States have lost their monopoly on force and now face new sources of threat from violent non-governmental organizations (NGO) such as terrorist and separatist groups. This thesis uses the case study of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to analyze the unique aspects of the formation, maintenance, and governance of security organizations addressing violent NGOs. The sources of information used are secondary sources such as academic journals and news articles, along with primary sources such as public statements and speeches. The case study provided an example of an environment that fostered state cooperation through the inherent need for coordination. Economic development played a role within maintaining the Shanghai Cooperation Organization by stabilizing allies and in eroding grass roots support for violent NGOs. Lastly, other factors facilitated expansion of its mission to counter balancing the United States within Central Asia.