No somos chingados: ideological constructions of male heterosexuality in Mexican American literature from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s

From the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s, Chicana literary production increased. During this time, Chicana authors concentrate on women's issues and oppression within patriarchy. Their criticism and creative literature reflects those realities as well as their exclusion from the Chicano movement. However, an examination of Chicana versus Chicano literature reveals similar ideological constructions of heterosexuality. Mexican American heterosexuality becomes defined by a sexualized macho image. This representation situates men as colonizers, aggressors, and dominators of women. Through literature, characters who exemplify these qualities work against the Chicana and Chicano criticisms of patriarchy. Keywords: Mexican American, Chicano, Chicana, sex, sexuality, heterosexual, feminism, patriarchy, colonization, mid 1970s, mid 1990s, ideology, representations, macho, oppression, chingar, Butler, Paz